Do you know why you prefer the music you prefer?

A study in press at the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, carried out by Peter J. Rentfrow, Lewis R. Goldberg and Daniel J. Levitin suggests that our preferences for music are related with 5 different underlying factors.

Like with other art forms, we engage with music at many different levels. On the one hand, music emerges from a complex interaction of acoustic properties and auditory processes, but on the other it conveys emotions and has strong social connotations. One of the aims of researchers interested in musical preferences is to determine how people’s preferences for music are related with those levels. Some preferences might be influenced by music’s purely physical properties, like loudness, tempo, and so on, the emotion it conveys, or its social implications.

Rentfrow and colleagues’ objective was to characterize the underlying structure of affective reactions to music excerpts. To achieve this aim they performed four experiments. First, they assessed the preferences of a sample of Internet users for fragments of commercially released but unfamiliar pieces of music. Second, they repeated this process with a sub-sample of participants using new unreleased pieces of music. Third, they assessed the preference of a sample of university students for a subset of the new music pieces. Finally, the musical fragments were coded on a number of attributes that could be used to characterize each of the underlying preference factors.

The results of their first three experiments converge on the existence of 5 main factors underlying musical preference determined both by social connotations and particular auditory features: (i) Mellow, which comprises smooth and relaxing music; (ii) Unpretentious, including mostly singer-song writer music; (iii) Sophisticated, including music perceived as complex, intelligent and inspiring; (iv) Intense, with loud, energetic and forceful music; (v) Contemporary, which comprises rhythmic and percussive music.

Their fourth study revealed that each factor is characterized by a unique set of attributes that distinguishes it from the rest. Specifically, excerpts with high loading on the Mellow factor were perceived as slow, quiet, undistorted, romantic, relaxing, unaggressive, sad, simple and interesting. Unpretentious music is rated as undistorted, instrumental, loud, electric, not fast, somewhat romantic, relaxing, sad, unaggressive, not complicated, and not intelligent. Sophisticated includes mostly instrumental, not electric, not percussive, not distorted, not loud, intelligent, inspiring, complex, relaxing, romantic and unaggressive music. Intense music was perceived as distorted, electric, loud, percussive, dense, aggressive, not relaxing, not romantic, not intelligent, and not inspiring. Music with high loadings on the Contemporary factor was rated as percussive, electric, and not sad.

If one of neuroaesthetics’ aims is to clarify the biological underpinnings of people’s liking and preference for music, these results are of relevance for at least two reasons. First, researchers should probably take these factors into account when designing future studies. Second, it would interesting to ascertain the neurobiological concomitants of such factors, and to determine whether there are any differences among the neural correlates of the aesthetic experience of people whose preferences clearly differ across those factors.

Rentfrow, P. J., Goldberg, L. R., & Levitin, D. J. (2011, February 7). The Structure of Musical Preferences: A Five-Factor Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0022406

Music for relaxation or relaxation for music?

Many people feel that music has powerful effects on their mood and emotions. The fact that lullabies exist attests to music’s capacity to soothe. Adults too use music to relax: they play music to focus before an exam or to cool down after a stressful day. If music is beneficial for relaxation, could relaxation be beneficial for music? A recent study by Oshin Vartanian (DRDC Toronto) and Peter Suedfeld (University of British Columbia) adds to the growing evidence that relaxation and music might be mutually beneficial.

The study aimed to test whether a particular form of relaxation could enhance certain aspects of jazz improvisation. Prior evidence had shown that floating in a virtually stimulus-less environment (floatation version of the restricted environmental stimulation technique-REST) enhances perceptual and motor skills as well as creativity in sports and sciences. This disconnection from external stimulation reduces stress and induces a state of relaxed alertness and concentration. Could the same technique also lead to improvements in the perceptual-motor and creative aspects involved in jazz improvisation?

To answer this question Vartanian and Suedfeld asked 8 students enrolled in a jazz improvisation course to undergo one floatation session, which lasted an hour, each week for 4 weeks. Five other students acted as control group. All the participants individually performed five minute long freely conceived improvisations a week before and a week after the floatation sessions. These performances were recorded and then rated by an expert for improvisation, creativity, expressiveness, technical ability, and overall quality.

The results revealed that the initial performances of both groups of students did not differ on any of the assessment dimensions. However, the participants that completed the four floating sessions scored higher on technical ability than the control students on the post-treatment performance. No significant differences were found between both groups on any of the other measures. This result was confirmed by an independent measure of progress throughout the course.

Hence, flotation REST can improve the technical aspects inherent to musical improvisation. Contrary to the authors’ initial expectations, however, the same technique did not lead to better creativity scores. This might have been because these sessions have only short-term benefits on creativity, which faded before assessment. Alternatively, creativity in performing arts might not be expressed in the same ways as it is in other fields.

Clearly these results warrant further studies to test the effects of flotation REST on other musical abilities, as well as on other performing arts, and to clarify the neural mechanisms responsible for these improvements.

International Dance Day Today!

Since 1982 the International Dance Council (CID) of the UNESCO invites us to celebrate the International Dance Day on the 29th of April. Its aim is to promote the international recognition of dance as a distinctive art form because, as the CID notes, across countries and cultures of the world dance still does not receive the same attention and consideration as other art forms.

The universal recognition of dance as an art form has clear implications for neuroaesthetics! Research in this field in the past few years has shown dance to be a noteworthy art form that can gracefully reveal important details of the emotional, cognitive and neural underpinnings of human art appreciation.

However, neuroaesthetics of dance is undoubtedly still in its infancy. Research on dance appreciation poses an array of remarkable experimental design demands to the neuroaesthetician. The first obstacle to overcome is the short-lived nature of a piece of dance –it is gone at the very moment of performance. Moreover, for experimental purposes, ideally, the dance movements must be extracted from very thoroughly crafted choreographies; the movements must be isolated from facial and musical information and, furthermore, be presented to experimental participants in the remote setting of a laboratory. Undoubtedly, this entrains an experience in the observer that is considerably different from the experience of attending a genuine dance performance. Secondly, as in all art forms, the perception of a dance is notably influenced by its cultural background and meaning, as well as by the historical moment of choreography and performance. Thus, a truly ecological experimental approach to dance seems complicated, if not impossible. Nevertheless, scientific aesthetics can overcome at least some of these constraints. By integrating existing scholarship from dance theory and humanistic approaches on dance practice, neuroaesthetics may actually find ways to approach the process of experimental design with dance movements in a more ecological fashion.

Research on dance appreciation, so far, has focused on movement perception, structure perception and emotion recognition, both in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. However, to date only few studies have linked the findings from such basic research questions with the hedonics of the proper aesthetic experience derived from the observation of that same dance movement. This is where promising avenues of study for future experimental aesthetics and neuroaesthetics reside…