Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience, by C. Redies

New open-access paper just published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience:

Redies C (2015) Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experienceFront. Hum. Neurosci. 9:218. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00218

Abstract:

In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

Neurocognitive poetics, by Arthur M. Jacobs

New open-access paper just published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience:

Jacobs AM (2015) Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9:186.

Abstract:

A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, esthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neuro)cognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialized journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott and Jacobs, 2011). In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

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Heroes of Neurons & Neuroaesthetics during the Brain Awareness Week

BAW

The Federation of European Neuroscience Societies supports the Brain Awareness Week, which is the global campaign to increase public awareness of the progress and benefits of brain research. This year, there will be 29 events/projects running simultaneously around the world. The only one in the whole UK is also closely related to Neuroaesthetics:

Screenshot 2015-03-12 at 19.43.25As part of this campaign, the project “Heroes of Neurons” has organised a most intimate series of popular science events on the topic of the human brain and mind. These are three very unique events taking place next week (March 16th to 20th):

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DRAWING NEURONS, WRITING BRAINS, PAINTING MINDS: 16th March, 6pm. City University London, Drysdale Building, Room ELG15. 

Emmanuel Pothos will give the inaugural speech and will welcome us to the Brain Awareness Week 2015. Also, he will present the talk on Neuroaesthetics from Beatriz Calvo-Merino and two neuroart exhibitions: “The Eyes of the Skin: The neuronal Underpinnings of the Bodily self through Photography” by  Alejandro Galvez-Pol and “Drawing neurons. Writing brains. Painting minds” by Albert Barque-Duran.

SPEED-SCIENCE: 18th March, 6pm. City University London, Rhind Building, Room DLG19. 

The public becomes the inquiring body, participating in the delivery of unprecedented fast rounds of swing Q&A. The heroes will be: Eduardo Alonso on artificial intelligence, Peter Ayton on decision-making, Carolyn McGettigan on language and communication, and Elliot Freeman on perception.

TALK: HEROES OF NEURONS: 20th March, 6pm. City University London, Drysdale Building, Room ELG02. 

Semir Zeki and Stefano Sandrone will share with us the most critical figures of the history of neuroscience, the Heroes of Neurons, from Ramón y Cajal to the Nobel prize John O’Keefe. A journey that has been fulfilled with misfortunes, enlightenments, and breakthrough discoveries that have defined the way we understand ourselves.

 View the whole program here.

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Twitter: @HeroesofNeurons